The development of papillomavirus is considered extremely dangerous for the human body. The earlier the pathology is detected, the less severe the consequences. Tests will ultimately help determine HPV. To do this, laboratories now offer a sufficient method to detect not only the presence of the pathogen itself but also its type. This will make it easier for the practitioner to select the appropriate treatment tactics.
Briefly about papillomavirus and its consequences
Among gynecological diseases, HPV is quite common. Usually, those who have an active sex life become infected. Most infections do not cause serious problems and heal on their own, especially with a strong immune system.
Attention! The most insidious varieties belong to the high oncogenic risk group. Such forms can persist in the body for a long time and can turn into malignant tumors.
There are three degrees of oncogenicity of the pathogen. It has been shown that a patient can be a carrier of several papillomaviruses at the same time.
The whole body suffers from the presence of papillomavirus infection, but especially the reproductive system. The pathology affects the lower and upper genitals and the anus. If the disease is not treated in time, the following consequences occur:
- Cancer of the vagina, cervix, vulva, penis.
- cervical carcinoma.
- Verruciform dysplasia.
Infection does not always lead to such serious complications. But with the appearance of papillomas and warts on the body, you should see a doctor as soon as possible. The infection is not genetically derived from the mother or father. But the chances of having a child in this case are small. Often, the presence of a pathogen causes a miscarriage.
Analysis for the determination of human papillomavirus in the body
The virus does not appear for a long time. Thanks to the analyzes, it is easy to detect the disease at an early stage and choose an effective treatment. This helps predict potential hazards to the patient’s health.
Special fluid tests have been developed to detect HPV. A wide variety of these are used as prophylaxis or to obtain the necessary information about the disease. The following types of research are considered demanding in laboratories:
|Mode||Biomaterial||It is typical|
|PCR||Saliva; urine; genital discharge; amniotic fluid.||It determines the DNA and amount of the pathogen in the blood when there are no symptoms of the disease. Diagnosis is made in patients with HRC. Extended typing is possible.|
|Quantum 21||Smear taken from the site of infection.||It explores the nature and quantitative components of the genotype.|
|Amplification test||Scraping from the vagina.||It shows the concentration of the infection in the blood, the degree of oncological danger.|
|Cytology (Papanicolaou test)||Smear from the urethra and urogenital tract.||Recognizes the class of pathology development. The method has a high probability of erroneous indicators.|
|Histology||Biopsy (a piece of organ tissue).||Allows condyloma and tumor to be separated.|
Blood tests for HPV antibodies, among others, are used. During the incubation period, the viral load is small, so the indicators will be inaccurate, requiring a second test.
Some countries are introducing effective screening and therapy programs.
There are currently three types available:
- Investigation of high oncogenic papillomavirus species.
- Priest test and fluid cytology.
- Visual use of acetic acid.
Important to know! Thanks to the screening program, cervical oncology is determined at an early stage. This increases the chances of a full recovery.
Indications of implementation
Virus testing is available to everyone, even if there are no typical symptoms. Some consider it necessary as a preventive measure or to prevent the growth and development of oncological processes. Experts recommend testing in the following cases:
- Presence of papillomas on the skin and mucous membranes.
- To confirm questionable cytological results.
- Abnormal discharge from the vagina.
- Suspected of oncology in women with dysplasia.
- The patient's personal concerns.
- Violation of urination.
- Pregnancy, infertility planning.
In-depth study of this pathology prevents the body from developing susceptibility to other infections such as the herpes simplex virus (HSV).
Epithelial tissue is the major biomaterial in diagnostic procedures. To do this, take a smear of HPV. Very rarely, amniotic fluid, blood, urine, or vaginal discharge are studied.
If a histological examination is ordered, a biopsy will be taken. Getting it is painful because we use a special tool to pinch the affected tissue.
Preparing for the analysis
Patients experienced in such procedures note that it does not hurt, the substance is taken without discomfort. But preparation requires a serious approach. In doing so, the following should be taken into account:
- You only need to give blood on an empty stomach.
- Restrict the use of drugs and alcohol.
- Do not use cosmetics or tampons.
- Drink only plain water.
- Reduce body emotional and physical stress.
- Temporarily give up intimate relationships.
You must be prepared in advance for laboratory activities. It is recommended to wash the genitals on the day of smearing. You should refrain from urinating for 2 hours before the procedure. Adherence to such rules will help you achieve more accurate metrics. Otherwise, the test will show a false negative result, or vice versa.
Implementation of the procedure in women
When they get a referral for an HPV test, many have no idea what it is and how it is performed on women. Check with your doctor or on the information pages to find out why this or that procedure is needed.
Scraping is often performed on women, as well as men, to perform papillomavirus tests. With the help of a brush used in gynecology, the necessary biomaterial is removed from the mucous membranes of the genitals and sent to the laboratory. You can start the diagnosis 5 days after the end of your period.
Clinical laboratories will monitor that all conditions of the diagnostic procedure have been properly followed. KVM or material intake control is used for this purpose. This test shows whether the amount of epithelium tested is within the norm.
Biomaterial sampling from men
Many people have an idea of how they take biomaterials for HPV testing in women. But not everyone knows how this process happens in men. The fence is made of urethra, so it is often called a urethra. To prevent the introduction of microorganisms into the test substance, the toilet of the intimate zone should be performed first. The genitals should then be treated with sterile saline and dried.
The doctor uses a special probe to take a general smear of the urethra flora. The resulting material was placed on a slide and examined under a microscope. The technology only allows the presence of bacteria and infection to be determined.
The smear image of latent infections is shown below. The principle of its implementation is the same as in the first case. Only the resulting material is placed in a special solution and handed over to the laboratory. There, the DNA of pathogens is studied and determined.
Terms and stages of the study
As soon as signs of weakened immunity appear, papillomas or warts appear on the skin, the body should be examined. HPV diagnosis consists of several stages:
- Visual inspection by a doctor: in women - gynecologist, in men - urologist.
- Blood donation.
- Perform a biopsy.
During the clinical examination, the doctor sees external signs of pathology. It prescribes laboratory diagnostic methods for in-depth testing.
Each clinic sets its own deadlines for obtaining results.
Many clinics report results quickly and the price list is much higher than the others. Cost does not always affect quality. The reviews are also good for cheap labs.
Deciphering the results
Patients who have undergone the necessary investigation will want to find out as soon as possible whether there is cause for concern or whether they can live in peace. With a general interpretation of the results, acquaintance often takes place on the Internet. It is usually issued in tabular form. For the convenience of professionals, color markers are used. But it is important not to rush to draw conclusions, as the attending physician should make an accurate diagnosis based on the general history and data obtained.
Important to know! Good results are obtained where all samples are negative. This means that the patient is unlikely to develop complications, especially the transition of the pathology to malignancies. In this case, the therapy has a favorable prognosis.
The situation seems much more complicated with positive indicators. These patients are considered high risk. Additional diagnostics are needed in the future, which is important to determine the stage of the disease and to rule out oncology. The patient needs constant medical supervision.
Other diagnostic methods
When a disease is detected, instrumental diagnostic methods are sometimes used. It is often used as a supplement to monitor changes in the body. To this end, appoint:
- Colposcopy. A special device is used to examine the cervix. Due to the multiple growth, the doctor can detect the warts that appear.
- Ultrasound of the pool.
These diagnostic methods are often used when the disease is progressing and affecting the organs and their systems. In terms of cost, they are slightly lower than laboratory tests.
Experts say diagnosis of papillomavirus in young people should be regular. This is especially true for those at risk. This approach reduces the chances of developing cancer.