Warts are small neoplasms that localize to different parts of the skin. It is a widespread pathology, according to various sources, in approximately every 3rd adult and one in 2 children. They are caused by a viral infection (human papillomavirus). Warts on the hands are one of the most common localizations. Not all formations need to be removed, in some cases the growths will go away on their own. Minimally invasive treatment methods are used to get rid of the pathology.
Warts are benign tumors that are not prone to malignancies. They can appear on any part of the skin: face, palms, fingers, soles, genitals. 2 types of tumors appear on the hands - ordinary and flat.
Warts on the hands can be single or multiple. They are characterized by the following features:
- its color may be fleshy, brown or grayish;
- its size varies between 3 mm and 1. 5 cm;
- it usually looks like a small bunch (shown in the picture).
Normally, their appearance is not accompanied by any symptoms. The formation is painless, sometimes itchy skin may occur.
The disease can develop in anyone, but children get sick more often. People with weakened immune systems are also more susceptible to infections.
Causes of warts on the hands
The pathology of the hand is caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The infection can spread in several ways:
- direct contact with handshake;
- indirect infection through common objects: door handles, railings, lift buttons;
- household infection when several people use the same towel or other personal hygiene device.
It usually takes several months from infection to the first manifestation of the pathology, during which time the wart grows to 0-1-1 cm.
Not all people who come into contact with the source of the infection develop warts. The likelihood of infection depends in many ways on the state of immunity. The predisposing factors are:
- any somatic disease that affects the condition of the immune system;
- dermatological diseases;
- very dry hand skin;
- increased sweating of the palm.
The frequent trauma of the skin of the hand also contributes to the occurrence of the pathology: biting of the nails, biting of the fingers and tearing of the burr. Non-compliance with personal hygiene rules plays an important role.
There are 2 types of tumors on the hands: common (vulgar) and flat. Differences lie in localization, shape, size, and approach to treatment.
Common warts are the most common form of the disease. They occur mainly in adults, but children can also become ill. It is localized on the fingers, the back surface of the hand, in the interdigital spaces.
How do they look:
- size 0, 5-1, 5 cm;
- rises above the skin;
- more often unique;
- they have an uneven, rough surface.
This is a relatively rare form of the disease, occurring in 4-5% of cases. Flat warts occur mainly at a young age, hence their other name - youthful. They are localized on the back surface of the hands. Formations are usually multiple, appearing in groups. Small lumps, up to 0. 5 cm in size, that almost do not rise above the surface of the skin.
Clinical evidence is usually sufficient for diagnosis. The shape and size of the formation and the absence of discomfort in the affected area are taken into account. Your doctor may order additional tests to rule out malignancies and other dermatological conditions. What studies can be assigned to it:
|Diagnostic method||Indications of the examination, explanation|
|Dermatoscopy||Allows you to examine skin formation at 10x magnification. You can use dermatoscopy to evaluate the edges, symmetry or asymmetry, color, surface, and other parameters of your neoplasm. The test is performed on all patients to determine if the formation should be removed or not.|
|Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)||To determine HPV infection. A test can not only confirm or rule out the presence of an infection, but also determine the type of HPV (carcinogenic, non-carcinogenic).|
|Histological examination||The main diagnostic method. Postoperative histological examination allows a 100% probability of making a diagnosis.|
What to do for the patient
It is not necessary to remove all warts. In children, such formations pass through on their own without requiring medical intervention. They are also rarely dangerous in adults.
In which cases surgery may be required:
- education is beginning to grow rapidly;
- the number increases;
- frequent trauma occurs;
- there are signs of malignancy (asymmetry, rapid growth, etc. ).
In any case, the decision to remove should be made by the physician after a full examination of the patient.
Manual wart treatment
There are several ways to get rid of the pathology. The choice depends on several factors: the general condition of the body, the number of formations, their size and their variety. The essence of the treatment is to remove the wart with the help of special preparations, laser, liquid nitrogen, electric current. Given the viral nature of the disease, antiviral therapy is prescribed to prevent relapses.
Cryodestruction is a treatment method based on exposure to liquid nitrogen. Exposure to low temperatures leads to freezing and tissue death.
Freezing is performed with a special applicator. How the treatment works:
- the wart is treated with an antiseptic solution;
- applying an applicator perpendicular to its surface with gentle pressure;
- the exposure time depends on the size of the formation and is 5-30 seconds.
Education fades and becomes denser due to liquid nitrogen. After 1-2 minutes, the freezing zone will turn red, swell, and then a small bubble will appear that will last for up to 1 week, gradually shrinking. A bark appears in its place, which is rejected after 1-2 weeks and leaves no noticeable cylindrical lesion on the skin.
Cryosurgery is most commonly used to treat warts, which has several advantages:
- ease of use and accessibility;
- pain relief;
- no postoperative scar.
Disadvantages of cryodestruction include the need to repeat the procedure, as complete destruction of the formation is rarely achieved in 1 session.
Electrocoagulation is a treatment method that uses a surgical coagulator to remove the formation. Electrocoagulation is based on the effect of electric current. This method of treatment is used to remove vulgar warts.
How the treatment works:
- local anesthesia is performed;
- using a metal loop to which a high frequency current is applied to remove the wart;
- the removed formation is sent for histological examination.
The benefits of coagulation include a low risk of postoperative complications, as heating the tissues stops bleeding and the spread of infection.
Whether a scar remains after such treatment depends on the depth of the lesion.
Laser removal of warts is one of the most modern treatment methods. Depending on the type of laser, this treatment is based on coagulation or evaporation.
Treatment is performed under local anesthesia. The wart is removed layer by laser with a duration of 2-3 minutes.
Postoperative complications are extremely rare, leaving a small depression at the site of formation removal.
The traditional method of getting rid of the disease is surgical excision of the formation. The treatment consists of a small amount of surgery under local anesthesia. Surgical excision is usually prescribed for major lesions when other methods are ineffective.
Scalpels or other surgical instruments can be used to remove the wart. After excision of the formation, cosmetic sutures are applied to the skin as shown in Figures 5-7. days. After removing the seams, a small scar remains on the skin.
Unfortunately, there is no specific drug that can get rid of papillomavirus infection. You can use topical preparations in the form of creams and ointments.
Folk remedies: help or not
Folk remedies are often used for home treatment: celandine juice, flaxseed oil, onion, mountain ash, thuja. Folk recipes are based on the treatment of the affected areas with herbal remedies that have a cauterizing or destructive effect.
Treatment with folk remedies does not lead to complete recovery. Even if he comes out to cauterize the wart, it will come back after a while. Such treatment often leads to complications.
Prognosis and complications
The prognosis is almost always favorable. In some cases, warts go away on their own, more often lasting a long time, but not causing significant discomfort. An unfavorable prognosis is usually associated with the development of complications:
- connection of bacterial flora;
- damage to surrounding tissues;
Complications are relatively rare, usually with frequent trauma or inadequate treatment of the disease.
The biggest problem in the treatment of pathology is frequent relapses. Given the viral nature of the disease, surgical removal of the formations does not guarantee complete recovery.